This week in Lecture Notes:
Social housing and housing vouchers have positive effects on children’s long-term outcomes
How does housing support for low-income families impact long-term outcomes for children? In a recent article, Henry Pollakowski and his co-authors use a national longitudinal dataset to examine how children participating in the Housing Choice Voucher (HCV) program and the public housing system fared as adults on outcomes. such as income and incarceration rates. Using a household fixed effects specification methodology, they find that “additional years of social housing increase earnings by 6.2% for women and 6.1% for men, while assisted housing vouchers increases earnings by 4.8% for women and 2.7% for men”. They also find that for children from black households, each additional year of HCV-assisted housing reduced the likelihood of being incarcerated in April 2010 by 0.3 percentage points for males and 0.7 percentage points for females. women.
Girls did better in school in 1940 when they had female teachers
Previous literature has offered mixed evidence from female teachers on the educational and vocational outcomes of girls and young women. In a new article, David Card and his co-authors examine the impact of female teachers in public schools on female students in 1940, with a particular focus on rural areas. This cohort of young women includes women who were more likely than previous generations to go to college and break into once-closed professions. The authors find that female students had better enrollment and class completion scores when taught by female teachers, and that this was true for both white and black students in the segregated South. They estimate, for example, that a girl taught only by female teachers would have been about 7 to 8 percentage points more likely to go to college.
How Sex Ratios in Australia Influence Masculinity Norms and Social Outcomes
Norms around gender roles and masculinity can influence economic and cultural trends. Using historical data on different sex ratios in specific regions of Australia, caused by differences in convict populations in the 18th and 19th centuries, Victoria Baranov and her co-authors find that an increase in the sex ratio history of men is associated with a 5.6% increase in the proportion of men who volunteered for World War I. Areas that historically had greater male bias also have more assaults, more sexual assaults, higher rates of male suicide, higher rates of prostate cancer, and greater male reluctance to contract the COVID vaccine. These areas also show lower levels of support for same-sex marriage and higher rates of boys being bullied in school. The authors conclude: “We interpret these findings as manifestations of norms of masculinity that emerged as a result of intense local competition between men and women. Once established, norms of masculinity persisted over time through family socialization as well as peer socialization in schools.
Top chart: Employment recovery after Hurricane Maria, boosted by young and older workers
Last month, the Census Bureau released its first quarterly labor force indicators for Puerto Rico, giving a more detailed look at the territory’s labor market. The data also shows that the job recovery after Hurricane Maria in 2017 was largely driven by workers under 25 and those over 44. Their analysis reveals that total employment had recovered by the end of 2019, after bottoming out in the first quarter of 2018.
Choice opinion: Enrichment programs can do little to end systemic injustices in education
“Simply adding more money to schools is unlikely to increase equity in education. We need to create policies at local and national levels that address the root causes of inequality, such as the impact of historic redlining that deliberately prevented black communities from having access to the same resources as white communities,” Shawna writes. Young in The Hechinger Report. .
Self-Advancement: The Racial Wealth Gap, Financial Aid, and College Access
In a recent analysis, Phillip Levine and Dubravka Ritter examine the role of the US college financial aid system in racial inequality. They show that excluding home equity and retirement savings from the federal formula for determining assistance results in an implicit subsidy for white families who hold more of these unaccounted-for assets.
For your calendar: LGBTQ rights and public policy, “Of Boys and Men,” and the impact of COVID-19 on Latino families
Of Boys and Men: A Conversation with Richard V. Reeves
American Institute of Enterprise
Thursday, October 27, 2022
11:00 a.m. – 12:15 p.m. EDT
Racial Foundations of Public Policy: LGBTQ Rights
University of Michigan Ford School, Center for Racial Justice
Thursday, October 27, 2022
4:00 p.m. – 5:15 p.m. EDT
The socio-economic consequences of COVID-19 for Latin American families
The Brookings Institute
Tuesday, October 19, 2022
3:30 p.m. – 5:30 p.m. EDT
#Lecture #notes #housing #assistance #allowances #gender #roles #Australia